Types of Muscle Strains
Muscle strains are common injuries in sports and results from an injury or strain of a muscle or its attaching tendons. A tendon is a tough, fibrous cord of tissue that connects muscles to bone. There are two types of muscle strains:
- Acute strains are caused by excessive stretching or tearing of a ligament
- Chronic strains are caused by repetitive movements of muscles and tendons over long periods of time and are more common in tennis players and golfers
Sports activities such as football, basketball, hockey, gymnastics, boxing, wrestling, tennis, rowing, golf-sports, racquet, throwing and contact sports place participants at greater risk for strain. The symptoms of a strain include:
- Muscle pain
- Muscle spasm
- Muscle weakness
Back strains occur when the muscles supporting the spine (back bone) are twisted, pulled or torn. Athletes involved in excessive jumping as in basketball or volley ball are more susceptible to back strain.
Hamstring muscle strains occur when there is a tear in one or more of the muscles at the back of the thigh. It is caused by imbalance between the hamstrings and the muscles in the front of the thigh. Sports that commonly cause a hamstring injury are sprinting sports such as track and field, soccer and basketball, all of which involve sudden accelerations.
Most sprains and strains will repair themselves with adequate rest, ice application, compression, and elevation (RICE). In case of severe injury, a brace or splint may be used to immobilize the area and prevent further injury. Surgery is occasionally required to repair the ruptured muscle or torn ligament.
The following tips can help reduce the risk of developing muscle strains:
- Sufficient stretching of lower and upper back muscles or warm-up exercises before playing sports is necessary
- Follow an exercise program to strengthen the muscles
- Eat a healthy well balanced diet that nourishes muscles
- Always wear a proper fitting athletic shoe with good support
- Use proper equipment suitable for the sport you play